Knowledge-based shoe design process
In the early 90’s, JOSEPH PINE introduced the fundamental concept of mass customization [PIN–93], which in opposite to the traditional serial production, is a customer driven approach of producing industrial products. Mass Customization (MC) is defined by the synthesis of mass production and the manufacturing of customized products by combining the positive characteristics of both: cheap mass produced products and expensive customized products with high quality and short delivery times [PIN–94, TsJi-01]. The difference between MC and single-item production is defined by PILLER as a threshold value for cost per unit produced. If this value is not higher than 10-15 percent of a comparable mass product, then it is referred to MC, otherwise it is referred to single-item production [PIL-98].